What is Property? An Inquiry into the Principle of Right and of Government

“Enlightened to-day by the triumphal march of science, taught by the most glorious successes to question our own opinions, we receive with favor and applause the observer of Nature, who, by a thousand experiments based upon the most profound analysis, pursues a new principle, a law hitherto undiscovered. We take care to repel no idea, no fact, under the pretext that abler men than ourselves lived in former days, who did not notice the same phenomena, nor grasp the same analogies. Why do we not preserve a like attitude towards political and philosophical questions? Why this ridiculous mania for affirming that every thing has been said, which means that we know all about mental and moral science? Why is the proverb, There is nothing new under the sun, applied exclusively to metaphysical investigations?

Because we still study philosophy with the imagination, instead of by observation and method; because fancy and will are universally regarded as judges, in the place of arguments and facts, — it has been impossible to this day to distinguish the charlatan from the philosopher, the savant from the impostor. Since the days of Solomon and Pythagoras, imagination has been exhausted in guessing out social and psychological laws; all systems have been proposed. Looked at in this light, it is probably true that every thing has been said; but it is no less true that every thing remains to be proved. In politics (to take only this branch of philosophy), in politics every one is governed in his choice of party by his passion and his interests; the mind is submitted to the impositions of the will, — there is no knowledge, there is not even a shadow of certainty. In this way, general ignorance produces general tyranny; and while liberty of thought is written in the charter, slavery of thought, under the name of majority rule, is decreed by the charter.”

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1840)

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The Behavior of the Laboratory Rat

“The principal function of the nervous system is to produce behavior. Thus, the ultimate goal of most behavioral work with laboratory animals in neuroscience is to understand how molecular events in the nervous system come to produce behavior and, as a corollary, how changes in molecular events produce differences in behavior. Understanding these issues offers hope for understanding the nature of the human mind, which some may argue is the fundamental question in neuroscience. But perhaps even more important is that understanding brain-behavior relationships offers a way to find treatments for dysfunctions of behavior, whether they are in the province of neurology or psychiatry. Advances in molecular and cellular neuroscience have been dramatic over the past two decades, but most of these advances have been independent of an understanding of how they relate to behavior. This is changing. Neuroscientists oriented toward molecular research are increasingly looking to the ultimate function of the phenomenon that they have been studying— behavior. For the majority of behavioral studies, this means studying the behavior of the laboratory rat.”

Whishaw

The Country School of Tomorrow

In our dream we have limitless resources, and the people yield themselves with perfect docility to our molding hand. The present educational conventions fade from our minds; and, unhampered by tradition, we work our own good will upon a grateful and responsive rural folk. We shall not try to make these people or any of their children into philosophers or men of learning or of science. We are not to raise up among them authors, orators, poets, or men of letters. We shall not search for embryo great artists, painters, musicians. Nor will we cherish even the humbler ambition to raise up from among them lawyers, doctors, preachers, statesmen, of whom we now have ample supply.”

Frederick T. Gates — Business Advisor to John D. Rockefeller (1913)