Brain metaphor and brain theory

“Surprisingly, given the pervasive popularity of this metaphor, there remains today no well-established evidence of symbolic manipulation or formal logical rules at the neurobiological level in animal physiology. . . . while the computational metaphor often seems to have the status of an established fact, it should be regarded as an hypothetical, and historical, conjecture about the brain. . . . Today’s embrace of the computational metaphor in the cognitive and neural sciences is so widespread and automatic that it begins to appear less like an innovative leap than like a bandwagon phenomenon, of the sort often observed in the sociology and history of science.”

J. G. Daugman